GREETING  AND PART OF SPEECH 

GREETING  AND PART OF SPEECH 

GREETING

You probably already know “hello” and “how are you?”. However, English speakers don’t always say “hello” and “how are you?”. They also use many other English greetings and expressions to say slightly different things. You can also use such English greetings to sound more natural, and also to express yourself more clearly and precisely.

Let’s learn how to use some other simple formal and informal English greetings, as well as fun slang expressions that people around the world use to greet each other. Whether you’re an EFL student or a English business professional, we’ve got you covered.

Common English Greetings and Expressions

English-speaking people usually greet each other in an informal way, so you can use these common conversational greetings for friends, family, as well as people you meet in casual settings.

1.      Hey, Hey man, or Hi

You can use “hey” and “hi” to greet someone instead of “hello”. Both are particularly popular among younger people. While “hi” is appropriate to use in any casual situation, “hey” is for people who have already met. If you say “hey” to a stranger, it might be confusing for that person because he or she will try to remember when you met before! You can also add “man” to the end of “hey” when greeting males. Some people also use “hey man” to casually greet younger women, but only do this if you know the woman very well. Remember that “hey” doesn’t always mean “hello”. “Hey” can also be used to call for someone’s attention.

2.      How’s it going? or How are you doing?

These are casual ways of asking “how are you?” If you’re trying to be particularly polite, stick with “how are you?” but otherwise, you can use these expressions to greet almost anyone. The word “going” is usually shortened, so it sounds more like “go-in”. You can answer with “it’s going well” or “I’m doing well” depending on the question. Although it’s not grammatically correct, most people just answer “good” – and you can too. Like when responding to “how are you?” you can also follow your answer by asking “and you?”.

3.      What’s up?, What’s new?, or What’s going on?

These are some other informal ways of asking “how are you?” which are typically used to casually greet someone you have met before. Most people answer with “nothing” or “not much”. Or, if it feels right to make small talk, you could also briefly describe anything new or interesting that’s going on in your life, before asking “what about you?” to continue the conversation.

4.      How’s everything ?, How are things?, or How’s life?

These are some other common ways of asking “how are you?” They can be used to casually greet anyone, but most often they’re used to greet someone you already know. To these, you can answer “good” or “not bad”. Again, if small talk feels appropriate, you could also briefly share any interesting news about your life, and then ask the person “what about you?” or another greeting question.

5.      How’s your day? or How’s your day going?

These questions mean “how are you?” not just right now, but how you’ve been all day. You would use these greetings later in the day and with someone you see regularly. For example, you might ask a co-worker one of these questions in the afternoon, or a cashier that you see at the grocery store every evening. “It’s going well” is the grammatically correct response, but many people simply answer with “fine”, “good” or “alright”. By the way, notice that “good”, “fine” or “not bad” are perfect answers to almost any greeting question.

6.      Good to see you or Nice to see you

These casual greetings are used with friends, co-workers or family members that you haven’t seen in a while. It’s common for close friends to hug when they greet each other, particularly if they haven’t seen each other in some time; so you might use this greeting along with a hug or handshake depending on your relationship with the person.

7.      Long time no see or It’s been a while

These casual greetings are used when you haven’t seen someone in a long time, particularly if you meet that person unexpectedly. How much is a long time? It depends on how often you normally see that person. For example, you could use one of these greetings if you normally see the person every week, but then don’t see them for a few months or more. Usually, these phrases are followed with a question like “how are you”, “how have you been?” or “what’s new?”

Business Greetings and Formal Greetings

It’s best to begin by using formal greetings in most business situations, and then listen to how your co-workers or business partners greet you. It’s a good idea to wait until someone speaks casually with you before you speak casually with them. You may find that people will begin to use casual greetings with you over time, as you get to know each other better. Formal greetings are also used when you meet older people.

1.      Good morning, Good afternoon, or Good evening

These are formal ways of saying “hello”, which change depending on the time of day. Keep in mind that “good night” is only used to say “good bye”, so if you meet someone late in the day, remember to greet them with “good evening”, rather than “good night”. Good morning can be made more casual by simply saying “morning”. You can also use “afternoon” or “evening” as informal greetings, but these are less commonly used.

2.      It’s nice to meet you or Pleased to meet you

These greetings are formal and polite. If you say this to someone when you meet him or her for the first time, it will make you seem courteous. Remember to only use these

greetings the first time you meet someone. Next time you see the person you can show that you remember him or her by saying “it’s nice to see you again”.

3.      How have you been?

This greeting question is only asked by people who have already met. If someone asks you “how have you been?” they want to know if you have been well since the last time the two of you met.

4.        How do you do?

This greeting is VERY formal, and quite uncommon, but it may still be used by some older people. The proper response is “I’m doing well” or, as strange as it seems, some people even ask “how do you do?” right back as an answer.

Slang English Greetings

Slang greetings are extremely informal, and should only be used with people that you know very well, and feel very comfortable with. Keep in mind that a lot of slang is regional, and using Australian slang, for example, in America can sound quite strange. You’ll need to learn the local slang wherever you are, but these common examples will help you get started.

1.      Yo!

This extremely informal greeting is common in America. It comes from 1990’s hip-hop slang and these days it’s often used jokingly. This greeting should only be used with very close friends, and never in a business setting.

2.      Are you OK?, You alright?, or Alright mate?

This casual way of asking both “hello” and “how are you” is common in Britain. You can respond “yeah, fine”, or simply “alright”.

3.      Howdy!

This is a very informal abbreviation of “how do you do?” that is common in certain parts of Canada and the U.S. Keep in mind that if you say “howdy” outside of these regions, you will sound like a cowboy, and it might make the other person laugh.

4.      Sup? or Whazzup?

These greetings are abbreviations of “what’s up?” which are common among teenagers. Like with “what’s up?” you can answer “nothing” or “not much”.

5.      G’day mate!

This casual greeting is an Australian abbreviation of “good day”. Keep in mind that Australian greetings often use “ya” instead of “you”. So “how are ya?” is the same as “how are you?”, and “how are ya going?” is basically the same as “how’s it going?” or “how are you doing?”

6.        Hiya!

This greeting, short for “how are you?”, is commonly used in certain parts of England. However, you don’t need to actually answer this question – you can just say “hey!” right back. I hope you enjoy trying out these new English greetings. You’ll find that greeting people in different ways will help your English sound more natural, and it might even make English greetings more fun and interesting for you.

Greeting is very important to open a conversation. Using Greeting, people can get the attention from the other people that can be continued to be a nice conversation. Bellow are some examples of Greeting:

Greeting                                                   Response

Good morning                                          Good morning

Good Afternoon                                       Good Afternoon

Good evening                                           Good evening

How are you?                                           Fine, thanks

How do you do?                                      How do you do?

How are you doing?                                  I’m great.

Hello.                                                        Hello.

Hi                                                              Hi

Formal and informal greetings

Speaking to people for the first time can sometimes be challenging as we try to work out how we should address them. In today’s post you are going to learn a wealth of useful information on how to greet someone for the first time, both in a formal and informal way.

Informal Greetings

Let’s start by looking at an example of a conversation between two friends that meet in the street. Since they are already friends, their conversation is informal:

– Hello!

– Hi!

– How are you?

– Great, thanks, and you?

– Fine, thanks.

Instead of “hello”, we can also use “hi” or “hey”.

Usually, when someone asks us how we are, we answer “fine, thanks”. “Thanks” is a more informal way of saying “thank you”.

Formal Greetings

Ok, let’s see another conversation example. This time the people do not know each other and are meeting for the first time.

  • How do you do? My name is John.
  • Pleased to meet you. My name is Lyndsey.

The sentence “how do you do” is a set phrase. This means you do not have to explain how you really are. You can simply answer with the same expression, or with “pleased to meet you”.

Nice to meet you and introductions

Time for another conversation! James, Lola and Sydney have just met.

James: How do you do? My name is James.

Lola: I’m Lola. Nice to meet you.

James: This is my wife, Sydney.

Sydney: Hi Lola! How are you?

Lola: Very well, thank you. And you?

Sydney: Fine, thanks.

We can say “nice to meet you” or “pleased to meet you”.

LESSON 2 PART OF SPEECH

In the English language, words can be considered as the smallest elements that have distinctive meanings. Based on their use and functions, words are categorized into several types or parts of speech. This article will offer definitions and examples for the 8 major parts of speech in English grammar: noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, and interjection.

Parts of Speech in English - nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections

1.  Noun

This part of a speech refers to words that are used to name persons, things, animals, places, ideas, or events. Nouns are the simplest among the 8 parts of speech, which is why they are the first ones taught to students in primary school.

Examples:

  • Tom Hanks is very versatile.
    • The italicized noun refers to a name of a person.
    • Dogs can be extremely cute.
    • In this example, the italicized word is considered a noun because it names an animal.
    • It is my birthday.
    • The word “birthday” is a noun which refers to an event.

There are different types of nouns namely:

Proper– proper nouns always start with a capital letter and refers to specific names of persons, places, or things. Examples: Volkswagen Beetle, Shakey’s Pizza, Game of Thrones

Common– common nouns are the opposite of proper nouns. These are just generic names of persons, things, or places. Examples: car, pizza parlor, TV series

Concrete– this kind refers to nouns which you can  perceive through your five senses.

Examples: folder, sand, board

Abstract- unlike concrete nouns, abstract nouns are those which you can’t perceive through your five senses. Examples: happiness, grudge, bravery

Count– it refers to anything that is countable, and has a singular and plural form. Examples: kitten, video, ball

Mass– this is the opposite of count nouns. Mass nouns are also called non-countable nouns, and they need to have “counters” to quantify them. Examples of Counters: kilo, cup, meter. Examples of Mass Nouns: rice, flour, garter

Collective– refers to a group of persons, animals, or things. Example: faculty (group of teachers), class (group of students), pride (group of lions)

2.  Pronoun

A pronoun is a part of a speech which functions as a replacement for a noun. Some examples of pronouns are: I, it, he, she, mine, his, hers, we, they, theirs, and ours.

Sample Sentences:

  • Janice is a very stubborn child. She just stared at me and when I told her to stop.
    • The largest slice is mine.
    • We are number one.

The italicized words in the sentences above are the pronouns in the sentence.

3.    Adjective

This part of a speech is used to describe a noun or a pronoun. Adjectives can specify the quality, the size, and the number of nouns or pronouns.

Sample Sentences:

  • The carvings are intricate.
    • The italicized word describes the appearance of the noun “carvings.”
    • I have two hamsters.
    • The italicized word “two,” is an adjective which describes the number of the noun “hamsters.”
    • Wow! That doughnut is huge!
    • The italicized word is an adjective which describes the size of the noun “doughnut.”

4.  Verb

This is the most important part of a speech, for without a verb, a sentence would not exist. Simply put, this is a word that shows an action (physical or mental) or state of being of the subject in a sentence.

Examples of “State of Being Verbs” : am, is, was, are, and were

Sample Sentences:

  • As usual, the Stormtroopers missed their shot.
    • The italicized word expresses the action of the subject “Stormtroopers.”
    • They are always prepared in emergencies.
    • The verb “are” refers to the state of being of the pronoun “they,” which is the subject in the sentence.

5.  Adverb

Just like adjectives, adverbs are also used to describe words, but the difference is that adverbs describe adjectives, verbs, or another adverb.

The different types of adverbs are:

Adverb of Manner– this refers to how something happens or how an action is done. Example: Annie danced gracefully. The word “gracefully” tells how Annie danced.

Adverb of Time- this states “when” something happens or “when” it is done. Example: She came yesterday. The italicized word tells when she “came.”

Adverb of Place– this tells something about “where” something happens or ”where” something is done. Example: Of course, I looked everywhere! The adverb “everywhere” tells where I “looked.”

Adverb of Degree– this states the intensity or the degree to which a specific thing happens or is done. Example: The child is very talented. The italicized adverb answers the question, “To what degree is the child talented?”

6.  Preposition

This part of a speech basically refers to words that specify location or a location in time. Examples of Prepositions: above, below, throughout, outside, before, near, and since Sample Sentences:

  • Micah is hiding under the bed.
    • The italicized preposition introduces the prepositional phrase “under the bed,” and tells where Micah is hiding.
    • During the game, the audience never stopped cheering for their team.
    • The italicized preposition introduces the prepositional phrase “during the game,” and tells when the audience cheered.

7.  Conjunction

The conjunction is a part of a speech which joins words, phrases, or clauses together.

Examples of Conjunctions: and, yet, but, for, nor, or, and so

Sample Sentences:

  • This cup of tea is delicious and very soothing.
    • Kiyoko has to start all over again because she didn’t follow the professor’s instructions.
    • Homer always wanted to join the play, but he didn’t have the guts to audition. The italicized words in the sentences above are some examples of conjunctions.

8.  Interjection

This part of a speech refers to words which express emotions. Since interjections are commonly used to convey strong emotions, they are usually followed by an exclamation point. Examples of Interjections in sentences:

  • Ouch! That must have hurt.
    • Hurray, we won!
    • Hey! I said enough!

The bold words attached to the main sentences above are some examples of interjections.

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