MAIN STRUCTURE PATTERN
Language is the most powerful and central tool in achieving our
educational goal. When it comes for examining language, words are focal points and we begin our investigation of language structure by looking at words from four of the following perspectives:
Their parts should be meaningful.
Their sounds of syllables that make them up.
The principles that organize them into phrases and sentences. The semantic relationships that link them in sets.
Its only through language, a person tries to express is thought , feelings, moods, aspiration which influence the ultimate and deepest foundation of the society.
Importance of language in the Modern World
English plays an important role in our present Educational system and also in our National life. it has become one of the common language and a person one who is fluent in speaking English can be a world citizen. India is a multi-lingual country were there are many languages spoken in different parts of our country. English language helps to communicate with ease .through structural approach we can learn English or any other language fluently. structural approach teaches to learn sentences in a systematic manner which involves the structure, sequencing and pattern arrangement of a words to make a proper and complete sentences with meaning. Today importance of English cannot be under estimated. It is a global language and it is the language of opportunities for the millions of youth around the world.
Maximum Use of the Foreign Language
The emphasis by structural approach on the teaching of the graded structures of a language means that the classroom should have the maximum foreign language environment. This is characteristic feature in structural approach. Where grammar-translation method is used, the classroom is characterized by two factors: 1) practice in reading and writing and 2) maximum use of mother-tongue. In reaction to these
practices structural approach advocates methods which would include – a) practice in the speech-skills, not because reading and writing should be neglected (as would be the case in the direct method), but that the teaching of the graded structures can be better undertaken through aural- oral work.
About Structural Approach
The Structural Approach is a technique wherein the learner masters the pattern of sentence. Structures are the different arrangements of words in one accepted style or the other. It includes various modes in which clauses, phrases or word might be used. It is based on the assumptions that language can be best learnt through a scientific selection and grading of the structures or patterns of sentences and vocabulary.
This approach as Kripa K. Gautam states “is based on the belief that language consists of ‘structures’ and that the mastery of these structures is more important than the acquisition of vocabulary. Since structure is what is important and unique about a language, early practice should focus on mastery of phonological and grammatical structures rather than on mastery of vocabulary.” Kulkarni “emphasizes the teaching and learning of the basic items or materials that constitute the framework of language.” Whereas according to Yardi ‘structures’ as an “internal ordering of linguistic item”, and further adds that structures may be defined as “device that we use to make signal, to convey meanings, and indicate relationship.”
According to Menon and Patel the objectives of the new structural approach are as follows:-
To lay the foundation of English by establishing through drill and repetition about 275 graded structures.
To enable the children to attain mastery over an essential vocabulary of
about 3000 root words for active use.
To correlate the teaching of grammar and composition with the reading lesson. To teach the four fundamental skills, namely understanding, speaking, reading and writing in the order names.
To lay proper emphasis on the aural- oral approach, activity methods and the condemnation of formal grammar for its own sake.
Main features of structural approach
The structural approach makes use of the following features for teaching the language:
Word order – Word order or the pattern of form is very important in Language for e.g:
- Jo broke his toy
- The toy broke Jo
sentence a) Jo broke his toy – makes proper sense. it shows the arrangement or pattern of words.
The presence of function words:
Function words help in modifying meaning considered the following sentence – for e.g:
- I ate an ice cream.
- I’m eating an ice cream.
- I will eat an ice cream.
In the above given example, we can see the modified meaning. the use of few Inflections:
By adding an affix, the base form of the word can be altered.e.g:
- In verbs: I play; he plays; I am playing ; I played
- In nouns; One boy; two boys; one man
- In adjective and adverb: Great – Greater – Greatest Principles of the structural approach
Prof. F.G.French has entitled the following principles underlying the structural approach:
Importance of Framing Language Habits.
Importance of Speech – The structural approach is based on the principle of effective used of speech.
Importance pupil’s activity.
The Principles of Oral work – Oral work is the basis and all the rest are built up from it.
Each language as its own Grammar – Instead of teaching Grammar of the target language and its structures are to be taught.[clarification needed] Creation of different types of meaningful situations by dramatization, facial expression, actions etc. Is stressed upon.
One item of language is taught at one time. Mastery of structures is emphasized.
Selection of structures
How should a teacher select the structure to teach the learner. This involves the selection of structures. In the structural approach mainly the focus will be on structures. The following principles should be kept in mind while selecting structures :
Usefulness – the structures, which are more frequent in use should be introduced first
Productivity – some if the structures are productive, other structures can be built upon. for e.g: we have two sentence pattern- a) Mr. Roy is here b) Here is Mr.Roy the former pattern is productive because we can frame many sentences on the same pattern like – He is there etc.
Simplicity – The simplicity of the structure depends upon the form and the meaning.
Teach-ability – Items easy from teaching point of view.
Frequency – The structures must be selected with a high frequency of occurrence. Range – to know, in how many contexts it is applicable Coverage – A word covering a number of meanings For e.g: Meals Learnabiliy – teacher should focus on the items that are easy for students to learn should be taken first.
Gradation of Structure
Structural approach upholds the teaching of English as a foreign language through the teaching of the structures of the language. The questions which structural approach attempts to answer primarily are: (1) should the structural items and sentence patterns to be graded? (2) how shall they be graded? and (3) what should be the fundamental principles of grading the structural items? through gradation of structure, we can get answers for the following Questions.
Gradation means grouping synonyms. In structural approach, gradation of structure can be taught by using the following patterns that should be taught at early stages:
- Phonetic grouping – group according to sound. for example: cat, rat, mat etc.
- Lexical grouping – grouping according to words used in same situation.
- grammatical grouping – pattern of sentences similar should be taught together.
- Semantic grouping – Words having similar meaning grouped together.
- Structure Grouping – selecting items that are fit for each other.
2. Sequencing :-
- Grammatical sequencing – it will tell that it follows which structure. e.g.: I was watching a movie. I was watching a movie with my friend.
- Semantic sequencing – A word having different meanings e.g.: The ball is there, under the bed. There are many balls in the bag.
- Lexical sequencing – It Tells which word follows which e.g.: sit-stand, come- go, high-low
3. Types of patterns of sentences:
there are different patterns of sentence. as follows below:
- Two- part patterns like She goes (she / goes)
- Three-part patterns e.g: He is reading (He / is / reading )
- Four-part patterns e.g: Geetha went to school ( Geetha/went/to/school)
- Patterns beginning with ‘there’, ‘wh’ type question e.g: There are five baskets in the rack. What is your name?
- Patterns of Command and Request e.g: come here, sit down , stand up etc.
- Formal pattern – like Good Morning, Thank You etc.
4. Sentence Patterns
The structures may have the following pattern like:
- Statement of Fact – mention simple facts e.g: Pinky gets up at 6 a.m. She takes bath. she eats her breakfast. she goes to school. ( subject-verb- object pattern )
- Imperative sentence – Question form verb-subject-object pattern e.g: Did Pinky come to school today? has she taken her breakfast ?
- Imperative sentence ( imply compliance) subject remains hidden. e.g.: (Pinky) Come here , Close the door , Bring your book etc.
5. Phrase Patterns
Sentence using phases are called Phrase pattern. e.g: That book is ‘on the table’
LETTER WRITING AND ASSIGNMENT FOR WRITING
News from My Lad by James Campbell, 1858-1859 (Walker Art Gallery)
A letter is one person’s written message to another pertaining to some matter of common concern. Letters have several different types: Formal letters and informal letters. Letters contribute to the protection and conservation of literacy. Letters have been sent since antiquity and are mentioned in the Iliad. Both Herodotus and Thucydides mention letters in their histories.
The study of letter writing
Due to the timelessness and universality of letter writing, there is a wealth of letters and instructional materials (for example, manuals, as in the medieval ars dictaminis) on letter writing throughout history. The study of letter writing usually involves both the study of rhetoric and grammar.
Advantages of letters
François Boucher – The Secret Message, 1767 (Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum) Letters are a way to connect with someone not through the internet. Despite email, letters are still popular, particularly in business and for official communications. Letters have the following advantages over email:
No special device is needed to receive a letter, just a postal address, and
the letter can be read immediately on receipt.
An advertising mailing can reach every address in a particular area.
A letter provides immediate, and in principle permanent, physical record of communication, without the need for printing. Letters, especially those with a signature and/or on an organization’s own notepaper, are more difficult to falsify than is an email and thus provide much better evidence of the contents of the communication.
A letter in the sender’s own handwriting is more personal than an email.
If required, small physical objects can be enclosed in the envelope with the letter. Letters are unable to transmit malware or other harmful files that can be transmitted by email.
Letter writing leads to the mastery of the technique of good writing.
Letter writing can provide an extension of the face-to-face therapeutic encounter. There are a number of different types of letter:
Audio letter Business letter
Cease and desist letter Chain letter Cover letter Crossed letter
Dear John letter Epistle
Form letter Hate mail
Hybrid mail (semi-electronic delivery) Informal letter
Letter of credence
|Letter Letter||of||intent of|
introduction Letter of marque Letter of
resignation Letter of thanks Letter to the editor Letters patent
National Letter of Intent Open letter Poison pen
letter Query letter
Recommendation letter and the closely related employment reference letter Sales letter
FORMAL STYLE LETTER$ USEFUL EXPRESSION IN LETTER AND LETTER OF APPLICATION
A business letter is usually a letter from one company to another, or between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of letter depends on the relationship between the parties concerned. Business letters can have many types of contents, for example to request direct information or action from another party, to order supplies from a supplier, to point out a mistake by the letter’s recipient, to reply directly to a request, to apologize for a wrong, or to convey goodwill. A business letter is sometimes useful because it produces a permanent written record, and may be taken more seriously by the recipient than other forms of communication.
Side, top and bottom margins should be 1 to 1 1/4 inches (the general default settings in programs such as Microsoft Word). One-page letters and memos should be vertically centered.
No special character or font formatting is used, except for the subject line, which is usually underlined.
The salutation or greeting is generally followed by a comma in British style, whereas in the United States a colon is used. The valediction or closing is followed by a comma.
Business letters conform to generally one of six indentation formats: standard, open, block, semi-block, modified block, and modified semi- block. Put simply, “semi-” means that the first lines of paragraphs are indented; “modified” means that the sender’s address, date, and closing are significantly indented.
The standard-format letter uses a colon after the salutation and a comma after the complimentary closing.
The open-format letter does not use punctuation after the salutation and no punctuation after the complimentary closing.
In a block-format letter, all text is left aligned and paragraphs are not indented.
In a modified-block format letter, all text is left aligned (except the author’s address, date, and closing), paragraphs are not indented, and the author’s address, date, and closing begin at the center point.
Semi-block format is similar to the Modified block format, except that the first line of each paragraph is indented.
In a modified semi-block format letter, all text is left aligned (except the author’s address, date, and closing), paragraphs are indented, and the author’s address, date, and closing are usually indented in same position.
CURRICULUM VITAE WRITING
Example of a CV.
A curriculum vitae (English: /kəˈrɪkjʊləm ˈviːtaɪ, -ˈwiːtaɪ, -ˈvaɪtiː/) (often shortened CV, resume or vita) is a written overview of a person’s experience and other qualifications for a job opportunity. It is akin to a résumé in North America. In some countries, a CV is typically the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview. CVs may also be requested for applicants to postsecondary programs, scholarships, grants and bursaries. In the 2010s, some applicants provide an electronic text of their CV to employers using email, an online employment website or using a job-oriented social-networking-service website, such as LinkedIn.
In the United Kingdom, most Commonwealth countries, and Ireland, a CV is short (usually a maximum of two sides of A4 paper), and therefore contains only a summary of the job seeker’s employment history, qualifications, education, and some personal information. Some parts of Asia require applicants’ photos, date of birth, and most recent salary information. CVs are often tailored to change the emphasis of the information according to the particular position for which the job seeker is applying. A CV can also be extended to include an extra page for the jobseeker’s publications if these are important for the job.
In the United States, Pakistan, Canada, Australia, Germany, India, and Cuba a CV is a comprehensive document used in academic circles and medical careers that elaborate on education, publications, and other achievements. A CV contains greater detail than a résumé, a shorter summary which is more often used in applications for jobs, but it is often expected that professionals use a short CV that highlights the current focus of their academic lives and not necessarily their full history. A CV is generally used when applying for a position in academia, while a resume is generally used when applying for a position in industry, non-profit, and the public sector.
Etymology, spellings and pronunciation
Curriculum vitae is a Latin expression which can be loosely translated as [the] course of [my] life. In current usage, curriculum is less marked as a foreign loanword. Traditionally the word vitae is rendered in English using the ligature æ, hence vitæ, although this convention (curriculum vitæ) is less common in contemporary practice.
The plural of curriculum vitae, in Latin, is formed following Latin rules of grammar as curricula vitae, and is used along with curricula vitarum, each of which is debated as being more grammatically correct than the other.