PRONOUN AND PRESENT TENSE

PRONOUN AND PRESENT TENSE

LESSON 3 PRONOUNS

Pronouns are used in place of a noun that has already been mentioned or that is already known, often to avoid repeating the noun. For example:

Kate was tired so she went to bed. Michael took the children with him. Kieran’s face was close to mine.

That is a good idea. Anything might happen. Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns are used in place of nouns referring to specific people or things, for example I, me, mine, you, yours, his, her, hers, we, they, or them. They can be divided into various different categories according to their role in a sentence, as follows:

  • subjective pronouns
  • objective pronouns
  • possessive pronouns
  • reflexive pronouns

Subjective pronouns

The personal pronouns I, you, we, he, she, it, and they are known as subjective pronouns because they act as the subjects of verbs:

She saw Catherine. We drove Nick home. I waved at her.

Objective pronouns

The personal pronouns me, you, us, him, her, it, and them are called objective pronouns because they act as the objects of verbs and prepositions:

Catherine saw her.

Nick drove us home. She waved at me.

Here’s a table setting out the different forms:

 SINGULARPLURAL
 subjectiveObjectivesubjectiveobjective
first personIMeweUs
second personYouYouyouYou
third personhe/she/ithim/her/ittheyThem

Notice that the personal pronouns you and it stay the same, whether they are being used in the subjective or objective roles.

Possessive pronouns

The personal pronouns mine, yours, hers, his, ours, and theirs are known as possessive pronouns: they refer to something owned by the speaker or by someone or something previously mentioned. For example:

That book is mine. John’s eyes met hers. Ours is a family farm. Reflexive pronouns

Reflexive personal pronouns include myself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves. These are used to refer back to the subject of the clause in which they are used:

I fell and hurt myself.

Daisy prepared herself for the journey. The children had to look after themselves. Pronoun Rules

There are a few important rules for using pronouns. As you read through these rules and the examples in the next section, notice how the pronoun rules are followed. Soon you’ll see that pronouns are easy to work with.

  • Subject pronouns may be used to begin sentences. For example: We did a great job.
  • Subject pronouns may also be used to rename the subject. For example: It was she who decided we should go to Hawaii.
  • Indefinite pronouns don’t have antecedents. They are capable of standing on their own. For example: No one likes the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard.
  • Object pronouns are used as direct objects, indirect objects, and objects of prepositions. These include: you, me, him, her, us, them, and it. For example: David talked to her about the mistake.
  • Possessive pronouns show ownership. They do not need apostrophes. For example: The cat washed its whiskers.

LESSON 4 PRESENT TENSE

Simple present tense adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja untuk menyatakan fakta, kebiasaan, atau kejadian yang terjadi pada saat ini. Simple present tense dibentuk dari verb-1 (present tense) atau linking verb “be” (is, am, are). Apa itu verb-1? Verb-1 merupakan bare infinitive dengan tambahan -s atau -es (contoh verb-1: does, goes, wants) khusus untuk subject berupa singular noun (kata benda tunggal: Tita, book, car) atau third person singular pronoun (kata ganti orang ketiga tunggal: she, he, it); atau tanpa tambahan apapun (contoh verb-1: do, go, want) untuk subject berupa plural noun (boys, men, books) atau plural pronoun (we, they), pronoun I/you, atau compound subject (you and me, Diyah and Nurul).

A.  Form

Simple PresentPresent Progressive
infinitive (3rd person singular: infinitive + ‘s’) I speak you speak he / she / it speaks we speak they speakform of ‘be’ and verb + ing   I am speaking you are speaking he / she / it is speaking we are speaking they are speaking
Exceptions
Exceptions when adding ‘s’ : For can, may, might, must, do not add s.Exceptions when adding ‘ing’ : Silent e is dropped. (but: does not
Example: he can, she may, it mustapply for -ee)
After o, ch, sh or s, add es.Example:         come         –         coming
Example: do – he does, wash – shebut: agree – agreeing
washesAfter a short, stressed vowel, the final
After a consonant, the final consonantconsonant is doubled.
y becomes ie. (but: not after a vowel)Example: sit – sitting
Example:     worry     –     he     worriesAfter a vowel, the final consonant l is
but: play – he playsdoubled in British English (but not in
 American English).
 Example: travel – travelling (British
 English)
 but: traveling (American English)
 Final ie becomes y.
 Example: lie – lying
  • B.   Use

In general or right now? Do you want to express that something happens in general or that something is happening right now?

Simple PresentPresent Progressive
in general (regularly, often, never) Colin plays football every Tuesday. present actions happening one after another First    Colin    plays    football,   then    he watches TV.right now Look! Colin is playing football now. also for several actions happening at the same time Colin is playing football and Anne is watching.
Signal words
alwaysevery …oftennormallyusuallysometimesseldomneverfirstthenat the momentat this momenttodaynowright nowListen!Look!
Note:    The    following    verbs    are    usually    only    used    in    Simple    Present: be, have, hear, know, like, love, see, smell, think, want

C.  Timetable / Schedule or arrangement?

Do you want to express that something is arranged for the near future? Or do you refer to a time set by a timetable or schedule?

Simple PresentPresent Progressive
action set by a timetable or schedule The film starts at 8 pm.arrangement for the near future I am going to the cinema tonight.

D.  Daily routine or just for a limited period of time?

Do you want to talk about a daily routine? Or do you want to emphasis that something is only going on for a limited (rather short) period of time?

Simple PresentPresent Progressive
daily routine Bob works in a restaurant.only for a limited period of time (does not have to happen directly at the moment of speaking) Jenny is working in a restaurant this week.

Certain Verbs

The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present (not in the progressive form).

  • state: be, cost, fit, mean, suit Example: We are on holiday.
    • possession: belong, have Example: Sam has a cat.
    • senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touch Example: He feels the cold.
    • feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wish Example: Jane loves pizza.
    • brain work: believe, know, think, understand Example: I believe you.
    • Introductory clauses for direct speech: answer, ask, reply, say Example: “I am watching TV,“ he says.

Forming the simple present tense: to think

AffirmativeInterrogativeNegative
I thinkDo I think?I do not think
You thinkDo you think?You do not think
He thinksDoes he think?He does not think
She thinksDoes she think?She does not think
It thinksDoes it think?It does not think
We thinkDo we think?We do not think.
They thinkDo they think?They do not think.

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